Archive for September, 2014


What Is Uric Acid?

Uric acid is naturally produced by the body as a result of the breakdown of purines as part of the body’s normal ongoing daily wear, tear and repair process. Purines are substances found in all of the body’s cells, and in many foods. This is a normal and healthy process. Uric acid from this process is generally cleared by the kidneys. Imagine the kidneys as being like a sieve which filters all the bad stuff from the body, keeping the good stuff in. With gout the kidneys become less efficient at filtering (the holes in the sieve become smaller) so more uric acid is retained in the body Viagra Australia Pharmacy. This is what happens when you drink alcohol and is why many heavy drinkers get gout. When the uric acid reaches a certain level it can then escape into the bloodstream and enter the joints, causing pain.

Some people can just produce too much uric acid (one reason why some men who don’t drink alcohol can still get gout). Uric acid can also be found in our diets, particularly in purine-rich foods like red meat (especially offal), duck, seafood (especially sardines and anchovies), gravy, kidney beans, peas and lentils. Other culprits can include shellfish, spinach, asparagus, cauliflower, mushrooms, beer and other forms of alcohol.

Binge drinking and extreme fasting can also cause uric acid levels to rise, as can certain medications, such as thiazide diuretics and niacin (Vitamin B3), which is often taken to boost HDL (good) cholesterol. Sometimes there are genetic factors involved that cause the uric acid level to be too high.

It is the build-up of high uric acid over a long period of time that tends to cause gout. The higher the uric acid level the higher the chance of developing gout. When uric acid leaks out of the blood it enters the joints, most commonly the big toe. Occasionally it can affect other joints, including the hands. The attack usually comes on suddenly, causing pain, and within a few hours the affected joint can become red, hot, swollen and painful.

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Diagnosis of Cout

The diagnosis of gout is often straightforward. Certainly any man who has suffered recurring attacks of gout will know immediately when they have been struck down by it. However, sometimes other forms of arthritis or infection can mimic gout. A high uric acid level supports the diagnosis of gout, but it is not as black and white as it seems: some people can have a high uric acid level for many years without developing gout. If the diagnosis is uncertain the doctor may remove a small amount of fluid from the joint; the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint fluid confirms the diagnosis beyond doubt.


Some Medical Causes of Depression – stop depression on

  • Chronic pain from any cause
  • Chronic illness, including lung problems, diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, metabolic disorders and thyroid problems
  • Substance abuse – alcohol, cocaine or other drugs
  • Withdrawal from stimulants, including nicotine and caffeine
  • Medications including beta blockers, steroids, pain killers, sleeping tablets and antihistamines
  • Neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, stroke, brain tumours, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and seizure disorders such as epilepsy
  • Infections such as flu, glandular fever, Lyme disease (from tick bites) and HIV

Treatment of Depression

It is well recognized that a healthy lifestyle has a positive effect on mood and mental health generally. Regular exercise is thought to have a mood-elevating effect by stimulating the release of the happy hormone serotonin. A healthy diet and lifestyle is conducive to good mental health and will help the recovery process. Eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, wholegrains and oily fish, and drinking plenty of water is also good for your health in general. Depression recovery begins with building supportive relationships and challenging any negative thoughts. Also, minding your physical Canadian health&care Mall will slowly but surely lift your mental health. Treatment can involve counselling/talking therapy or medication, or a combination of both.

Talking Therapy or Counselling

This can be helpful if there is an underlying stressful issue causing your depression, for example, a relationship difficulty. Individual counselling therapy, marital and family counselling, or group therapy can all be helpful ways of treating depressive symptoms. This process can allow you the opportunity to learn healthier ways of dealing with negative feelings and solving problems. It is important that you go to a suitably trained and qualified counsellor. The Irish Association of Counselling Therapists (IACT) is a useful place to find someone suitable in your area, or ask your CP for advice.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

This is based on the idea that, by changing the way you think, feel and behave, you can eliminate mental health problems such as depression. The aim is to make your thought patterns more realistic and helpful. This type of treatment is generally done in weekly sessions over several months. Psychotherapy can help you get to the root of your problems and change your negative thinking patterns, and allows you to learn new ways of coping.


What Are the Causes and Symptoms?

The main symptoms of Peyronie’s disease are:

  • Penile pain on erection
  • A thickening in the shaft of the penis
  • A curvature of the erect penis
  • Sometimes erectile dysfunction (ED or impotence) as well

The first symptom tends to be penile pain and discomfort, which occurs with an erection as the plaque is stretched. This pain with an erection usually goes within a few months. The next thing the affected man notices is a thickened feeling or lump (plaque) in the shaft of his penis. After this he may notice that the penis tends to become more curved when erect. This can make sexual intercourse more difficult and uncomfortable and it may eventually become impossible. Erectile dysfunction is commonly seen in men with Peyronie’s disease.

How Is Peyronie’s Disease Treated?

Fortunately, many men with Peyronie’s disease have a mild form of the condition, which doesn’t interfere with sexual intercourse. These men need no treatment. For men with more severe forms of the condition, several treatment options can be tried, including injections into the penile plaques or surgery to try to straighten the penis. Unfortunately there is no guarantee of success, as the underlying cause of Peyronie’s disease remains unknown.

What Is a Vasectomy?

A vasectomy is a simple and highly effective method of contraception. It is sometimes known as male sterilisation. A vasectomy is a procedure that involves cutting the two tubes leading away from the testes, called the vas deferens, so that sperm can no longer get into the semen. A vasectomy is usually considered to be a permanent form of contraception, although in some cases the procedure can be reversed, if necessary (but with difficulty).

A vasectomy works by preventing sperm from reaching the semen that is ejaculated from the man’s penis during sex. It is a quick and usually painless surgical procedure, which is carried out under local anaesthetic. This means that, in most cases, you will be able to return home within an hour or so of your procedure.

What Are the Risks of a Vasectomy?

The risk of side effects or complications after a vasectomy is low and these are usually minor; they may include some bleeding or bruising at the scrotum. Mild infection is uncommon. Less commonly, a swelling called a sperm granuloma may occur due to an inflammatory reaction to sperm released into the bloodstream or tissue during the procedure. Much rarer is when the ends of the vas deferens may reconnect with one another, which could result in your partner getting pregnant.

There is currently no evidence of any increased risks of prostate cancer or other long-term health complications. However, these matters are the subject of ongoing research.

A vasectomy shouldn’t affect your sex drive or ability to have erections or orgasm. The only difference is that the semen you ejaculate will not contain sperm. The body continues to produce sperm after the procedure, but the testicles naturally reabsorb the unneeded sperm.


With atherosclerosis, cholesterol builds up in the blood vessel walls and forms plaques, which make the vessels narrow and slow blood flow. When plaque becomes very advanced, it can completely stop blood flow, which is what happens in a heart attack or clot. This is why it is very important to follow up ED Cialis pills Canada with tests for any heart issues.

Current thinking is that atherosclerosis affects people differently, but it often affects erectile function first (endothelial dysfunction), then the heart and brain, and the legs last. The smaller arteries in the body, such as in your Dick, are the first to get plugged up. Treating atherosclerosis involves diet, exercise and medications, if necessary. So, talk with your Doctor about a broken sex life, and you might be able to prevent a broken heart. Now, if atherosclerosis is so important, what causes it? Mr Dickxy has done the research as always. Here is a familiar list:

– High blood pressure
– Diabetes not the Perfect Storm again?
– High cholesterol
– Being overweight
– Lack of physical activity
– Cigarette smoking
– Age (generally > 45 years)
– Family history of heart disease (generally father or brother diagnosed before 55 years of age; mother or sister before 65).

Apart from the genetic stuff, it seems like most of the bad effects on Mr. Heart have something to do with Lifestyle and Nutrition. Hence I recommend Step 6 to everyone irrespective of the primary source of ED. The good news is that sexual activity is recommended for a healthy heart and non strenuous sexual activity is highly recommended for patients with heart issues.


What Is Cancer?

What Causes Cancer?

As we have said, cancer occurs when the fine-tuning mechanism in the body that controls and regulates cell growth and cell death is altered. In addition, the body’s natural immune system, which is normally able to kill off many cancer cells, malfunctions Viagra New Zealand. The result of these two events is uncontrolled cell growth and these cells can then invade other parts of the body.

This can occur because of genetic factors or environmental factors or a combination of both. Many people are genetically programmed to develop cancer. In other words, if there is a strong history of cancer in the family then you may be more at risk of developing that type of cancer yourself. Bowel cancer is a good example of this. Environmental factors include exposure to a wide variety of substances that are known to increase the risk of getting cancer. These substances are known as carcinogens.

Known Risk Factors for Cancer

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Several risk factors make a person more likely to develop cancer:

  • Cigarette smoking and tobacco use. Smokers worldwide account for about 85 per cent of cases of lung cancer in men. Smoking is also a major cause of oesophageal, mouth, throat, bladder and pancreatic cancer. There are over fifty different carcinogens in tobacco smoke.
  • Obesity
  • A high-saturated-fat ‘Western diet’. Lots of red meat and little fresh fruit and vegetables lead to an increased risk of both colon and prostate cancer.
  • Lack of exercise
  • Exposure to workplace carcinogens such as asbestos, arsenic, benzene and vinyl chloride
  • Drinking large amounts of alcohol leads to an increased risk of mouth, throat, oesophageal and liver cancer.
  • Genetic factors are important in some cancers, such as colon, stomach and prostate cancer.
  • Exposure to radon gas. This is a natural radioactive gas which seeps from the ground into the home. Levels of radon are quite high in various parts of Ireland and it is strongly associated with lung cancer.
  • Food additives such as nitrates in processed foods, which are converted in the body to carcinogenic nitrosamines
  • Barbequing food may produce carcinogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that may promote intestinal cancer.
  • Medical treatment that suppresses the immune system, allowing for successful organ transplantation, can also result in cancer because of this suppression of the immune system.
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  • Radiation
    • sunlight exposes the body to ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet radiation over a prolonged period of time can damage DNA and cause cancer. This is why excess sunbathing or sunburn can cause skin cancer.
    • other forms of ionising radiation such as nuclear energy (think of the Chernobyl tragedy), medical x-rays and the natural gamma radiation in cosmic rays
  • Infections
    • virus infections associated with cancer would include the HIV virus, which weakens and destroys the body’s natural defence system, thereby opening the door to many cancers.
    • hepatitis B and C viruses can lead to liver cancer.
    • the human papillomavirus, which is sexually transmitted by men to women, can cause cervical cancer in women.
  • Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection, if untreated is associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer.


Polycystic ovary syndrome

While fertility is not usually a concern of adolescent girls with PCOS, their mothers or fathers will often ask about potential fertility if their daughters have erratic menstrual cycles. The key advice concerns diet and body weight, as being overweight in the long term both reduces spontaneous fertility and the chance of a response to ovulation-inducing drugs if required.

Hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction

Secondary hypogonadism results from deficiency of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). The primary deficiency arises from the pituitary or hypothalamus. Hypopituitarism may be idiopathic or secondary to tumours of, or adjacent to, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In childhood and adolescence, these include craniopharyngiomas, germ cell tumours and adenomas. Radiotherapy to the central nervous system for the treatment of brain tumours or leukaemia may result in acquired failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with secondary infertility.

Isolated deficiency of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) affects 1 in 10,000 males and 1 in 50,000 females. It may be part of Kallmann Syndrome, which is associated with anosmia (lack of sense of smell) and is due to deletion of the single gene, Kalig-1, which results in abnormal neuronal migration during fetal life.

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Infertility secondary to cancer and cytotoxic treatments Childhood cancer is rare – the risk for an individual child developing cancer in the United Kingdom before the age of 15 years is 1 in 500. Seventy-three per cent of patients are still alive five years after diagnosis. Both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may directly damage the ovary or testis, while tumours and radiation to the brain may affect the hypothalamo-pituitary axis (see above). The extent of resulting infertility is unclear as:

new cancer therapies are constantly developing that may prove more damaging or less damaging to the reproductive system than those currently used survival and therefore the potential for reproductive recovery is further prolonged.

Additionally, new assisted reproductive techniques are developing.

Currently it is thought that 15 per cent of survivors will have a high risk of early and irreversible gonadal failure, while others may have a lower risk of compromised reproductive capacity (Wallace et al. 2001). Males appear to be more susceptible to sub-fertility following chemotherapy than females, while some buy female Viagra online may be at risk of premature menopause.

Cytotoxic therapies, including cyclophosphamide, are used to treat non-malignant conditions in childhood and adolescence including some chronic renal and rheumatoid conditions. Consequently, survivors of these conditions may be at risk of impaired fertility, although lower doses of chemotherapeutic agents are usually used in the management of these disorders.



Potaba™ (potassium paraaminobenzoate) may exert its effects through antiinflammatory and antifibrotic mechanisms. Several observational studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in treating PD. In the lone clinical trial conducted, men randomized to the Potaba™ arm, all of whom had early-stage PD, had a greater reduction in plaque size. Despite the limited data, Potaba™ holds promise in terms of stabilizing preexisting lesions and preventing new plaques from forming; however, frequent dosing, significant gastrointestinal side effects and its relatively high cost limit its use. – cheap medications at the low price Buy now


Pentoxifylline is a nonspecific PDE-5 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties used to treat claudication and symptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis, kidney transplants, open heart surgery, dermatologic conditions, and radiation-induced fibrosis as a means of decreasing inflammation and fibrosis. The potential benefit of pentoxifylline for the treatment of PD is based upon data from in vitro and in vivo models. Pentoxifylline added to fibroblast culture resulted in an upregulation of cAMP and decreased collagen I production. These researchers also demonstrated decreased levels of profibrotic factors and decreased size of fibrotic plaques after the treatment with pentoxifylline in a rat model of Peyronie’s disease. Additional in vitro evidence revealed an upregulation of osteoclastic activity after the treatment with pentoxifylline.

From a clinical standpoint, case reports suggest that pentoxifylline may prevent corporal fibrosis after priapism and decrease calcifications in new-onset Peyronie’s disease. The reduction in tunica albuginea calcifications may derive from pentoxifylline’s ability to promote osteoclastic activity. In general, side effects are mild and consist of nausea (14%), dizziness (9%), and headache (3.5%). Despite the potential for benefit based upon its mechanism of action and early clinical data, higher quality data is needed to support the use of pentoxifylline for the routine treatment of PD.

Vitamin E

Although numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the potent antioxidant properties of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), these properties may not translate into improved clinical outcomes for men with PD. Several randomized studies have shown no benefit; however, when vitamin E was combined with colchicine, a single-blind, small randomized controlled trial in men with mild, early PD demonstrated significantly decreased plaque size in the intervention arm. Despite this lack of efficacy, vitamin E is often prescribed because of its ease of use and the perception of few side effects. Unfortunately, a growing body of literature suggests a possible link between chronic, high dose vitamin E ingestion and significant side effects such as increased heart failure, blood pressure, and all-cause mortality; however, these findings were confined to patients being treated for chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension.


Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, may reduce the production of TGF-b by fibroblasts in the tunica albuginea. Observational studies have demonstrated modest treatment benefits. One clinical trial revealed no significant difference between tamoxifen and placebo, while another found that tamoxifen was inferior to l-carnitine in terms of reducing penile curvature and pain, and plaque size during the early stage of PD.


Colchicine is often used for the treatment of gout and a variety of malignancies and has been used for the treatment of PD because of its anti-inflammatory properties. One randomized study has shown decreased plaque size in the acute phase of PD; however, these findings could not be repeated in a subsequent, larger clinical trial. Because of the potential for significant bone marrow suppression, a complete blood count should be obtained quarterly. More commonly, gastrointestinal side effects (i.e., diarrhea, nausea, and anorexia) are reported.


Cutaneous symptoms of urticaria, angioedema, flushing, and pruritus are the most common manifestations of IgE-mediated food-allergic reactions. Cross-linking of food-specific IgE on cutaneous mast cells results in mast cell degranulation. Allergic mediators released locally include histamine, which causes pruritus, and vasodilatory mediators, which cause local swelling. In urticaria, mast cells in the superficial dermis are involved, resulting in “hives,” which are pruritic, erythematous, raised, and well-demarcated or coalescent plaques, often with central pallor and blanching upon pressure. In angioedema, mast cells in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissues are involved, resulting in leakage of plasma into subcutaneous or mucosal tissues. Swelling due to angioedema is characteristically asymmetric, nonpitting, and in non-gravitationally-dependent areas, such as the face, hands, buttocks, genitals, abdominal organs, or the upper airway. When evaluating a patient with swelling, the presence of accompanying hives is often helpful in distinguishing mast cell-mediated angioedema from nonallergic causes of edema.
IgE-mediated food allergy should be considered in patients presenting with acute urticaria shortly after exposure to a culprit food, particularly if the food has reproducibly triggered allergic symptoms. Approximately 20% of acute urticaria is attributable to food allergy.16,17 However, it is important to note that chronic urticaria, in which hives persist for greater than 6 weeks, is unlikely to be related to food allergy. Although as many as half of patients with chronic urticaria believe foods cause their symptoms, only 2% to 10% actually have food-induced urticaria in placebo-controlled oral food challenges.
Ingestion of a food allergen is a common route of exposure by which urticaria and angioedema may result; however, direct contact of the food allergen with skin can also cause cutaneous symptoms. Acute contact urticaria refers to reactions in which hives are localized only to the areas of food contact. Although any food may trigger IgE-mediated cutaneous symptoms, the most commonly implicated foods are cow’s milk, egg, peanut, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Contact urticaria may be triggered by those foods, as well as by raw meats and raw fruits and vegetables allergy medications online phenergan Canada.
Although hives and swelling are common signs of IgE-mediated food-allergic reactions, it is critical that health care providers be aware that skin manifestations are not always present. In up to 20% of cases of anaphylaxis, there are no associated skin symptoms. The absence of skin findings may contribute to delayed recognition and treatment of systemic allergic reactions. For example, in one study, 80% of children or teenagers with fatal food-induced anaphylaxis had no associated skin findings. Providers should be careful not to exclude the diagnosis of an IgE-mediated food-induced reaction, simply due to the absence of cutaneous symptoms.