Archive for the ‘Surgery’ Category


There are many different kinds of hand problems for which having a surgical procedure can make better. Surgery is a very specialized type of surgery that can improve impairment due to an injury, disease, abnormality or other illness. For example, if your hands have lost their strength and/or flexibility and just do not work as nature intended any more than a surgeon can help you. The same can be said if you suffer constant pain in your hand, your wrist or in your fingers.

Hand surgery can be done on any person of any age if it is called for. It is right for you if you do not suffer from any medical problems that could cause complications to arise or reduce healing. Please note that smoking slows the body’s ability to heal and therefore non-smokers will recover quicker than smokers.

Having realistic expectation about the operation and being optimistic also makes you a good candidate. Good patients are those who are dedicated to their own recoveries and are willing to follow their doctor’s instruction for both pre and post-op.

When you go to see the specialist for your consultation it is important that you are completely honest about everything you are asked. The success of the surgical procedure, as well as the safety of it, is very much dependent on the answers you give to questions regarding your medical history, health, work and lifestyle. This is an imperative part of the preparation for hand surgery.

The doctor will want to know if you suffer from any medical conditions for which you are currently in treatment or taking medication for. You must be willing to disclose any allergies you suffer from as well as previous surgeries you have had. You may also be asked if you take any vitamins, herbal supplements or over-the-counter drugs on a regular basis. He may also inquire if you smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs (prescription or recreational). All of these items are an essential component of your patient file.

The hand surgery will be discussed in depth, including what your expectations are and what the hoped for outcome is. Any risks must also be discussed at the time. Feel free to ask any questions that you want. Don’t be shy. If there is anything the specialist has told you that you are not sure about then whatever you do, ask for more information. Do not leave his office unsure about anything.

Before the date for your operation you may be instructed to stop taking the medications you normally take or to reduce the dosages. If you are a smoker then you will be asked to give up cigarettes for a specified number of weeks prior to the date.

Depending on what medications you take on a day-to-day schedule you will be told to stop taking herbal supplements, aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs because these drugs can cause you to bleed more readily during the hand surgery.



Cataract is one of the most common eye diseases. However, unlike cancer, cataract is easier to treat. In addition, there are several types of treating a cataract. One of the ways in treating it is through surgeries. Let us take a look at the different types of surgeries applied for cataract patients.

The first type of surgery is Phacoemulsification. This is the most common surgery treatment for cataract and the easiest one since it will only take less than 30 minutes for an eye doctor to complete it. It involves sedation, but at the minimum level, and numbing eye drops. It does not require stitches to close the wound and does not involve an eye patch to cover the eyes after surgery. This is applied to those patients whose cataract infection is not a lot.

Another type of surgery is called Extracapsular Surgery. This type of surgery is applicable to those patients who have advanced cataracts. This is normally applied if the lens cannot be dissolved into fragments because it is too dense to be soluble. The eye doctor removes the cataract all at once without fragmenting the land inside the eye. It needs a large incision and more numbing medications are applied around the eye.

It entails an artificial lens being placed in the capsular bag and this process requires various sutures to close the larger wound. It also requires an eye patch after the surgery t keep the eye from harmful elements from the environment. Eye recovery on this type of surgery is usually slow and the eye patch will be removed based on the patient’s recovery.

The last type of cataract surgery is the Intracapsular Surgery. This method of cataract removal is obsolete, and it is rarely used nowadays. However, it can be applied and useful in cases of trauma and less side effects compared to other eye treatments. it creates an even larger wound compared with thee extracapsular surgery, since the doctor normally removes the entire lens along with the capsule surrounding it altogether at the same time.

In this process, the lens which happens to be intraocular is placed in front the eye’s iris. Of course the recovery is not easy, and requires a lot of numbing medications as well. The same thing with extracapsular processes, it entails stitches to close the bigger wounds, and an eye patch is necessary to cover the treated eye from harmful elements around.

The cataract treatment that will be employed today will be dependent on the extent and intensity of cataract infection. If one surgery is not applicable, then the next one should be employed. The recovery and the amount of numbing medications normally defer for each surgery. At the same time, if it is not necessary to open the eye for further examination, then the doctors would use a simpler approach.
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Well, it is still the patient’s call what type of surgery they want since the doctor will lay a lot of options. Of course, it needs to have some pre-surgery treatments as well, like medications and drops. If you suspect to have a cataract and you would want a medical treatment, contact your eye doctor immediately to check the best option you have before getting yourself towards the actual surgery.


A robotic surgery is a computer controlled and self powered device which can be programmed to help in manipulation and positioning of surgical instruments. This enables the surgeons to carry out complex tasks quite easily. However the systems which are currently in use have not been designed to act independently from a human surgeon or even not ready to replace them. Rather, these machines actually act as remote extensions which are completely governed by surgeons and so they are best called as master slave manipulators. Fortunately, two of the master slave systems have already received approval from the FDA or Food and Drug Administration of US and are being used which are the da Vinci surgical system and ZEUS system. These systems come designed with two basic components which are linked together with computer and data cables.

The master console of the surgeon is the user interface of the robot surgery which offers master surgeon several instructions.

The instructions offered include
• 3-dimensional view for the surgical field relayed from the endoscopic camera included inside the patient’s body and in control of the robot which creates sense of being engrossed in the surgical field.
• An professional control panel to amend the functions such as motion scaling, controlling and focusing camera and to the accessory units.
• There is a master manipulator control which is basically like joysticks or handles which surgeon uses during the surgery. These movements though the handles are then translated to real time movements for the slave manipulators docked over the patient. The motions scaling and tremor filtering functions increase precision and accuracy in movements of the surgeon.

However the patient side robotic manipulators are still also designed with robotic arms which manipulate surgical instruments along with the camera through laparoscopic ports that are connected in the body of the patient. The da Vinci system is designed to handle surgical instruments including microarticulations at the tip or endowrist which can actually duplicate the motions of human waist.

Robotic surgery – clinical applications

Robotic surgery today effectively addressed the confines of traditional thoracoscopic and laparoscopic surgery thereby allowing achievement of advanced and complex surgical procedures with better precision in a plainly invasive manner. As opposed to the uncomfortable positions which are needed during laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon in robotic surgery is comfortably seated on the robotic consol in a perfect arrangement which indicates which reduces physical burden of the surgeon. Rather than just 2-dimensional or flat image which is gained through the standard laparoscopic camera, surgeon in robotic surgery receives 3-dimensional view which improves depth perception. Moreover the camera motion is also very steady which is conveniently controlled through the operation surgeon through manual or voice activated master controls. Moreover the manipulation of the robotic arm instruments also improves the range of motion when compared with standard laparoscopic instruments and thereby it lets the surgeon to conduct more compound surgical movements.

However in comparatively short time the robotic procedures are spanning the whole range of surgery which have been effectively executed. Some initial results display that morbidity, mortality and hospital stay contrast favorable to the traditional laparoscopic operations. There are just a few number of randomized and potential studies which compare outcomes from the robotic techniques over the existing conservative methods. Some more procedures specific and randomized trials also need to be conducted before the robotic surgery can find their way into regular surgical practice.

Limitations of robotic surgery
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Although robotic surgery is fast developing the technology has still not achieved its full prospective while owing to some limitations. One major issue is the cost effectiveness point. Some recent studies that compare robotic procedures over standard operations have displayed that although the absolute cost for these robotic operations are a bit high the major part for this increased cost attributes the initial cost for purchasing the robot and yearly maintenance. These two factors are expected to decrease as the robotic system gain higher widespread recognition. However it is imaginable that some further technical advancements might at first drive the prices even more higher. The robotic equipment is also a bit bulky which is yet another drawbacks to this robotic surgery.


Although robotic surgery is still in its early stages, it is still a cutting edge development in the surgery field which can have high ending implications. The robotic surgery is also improving dexterity and precision and this fast emerging technology would soon allow the surgeons to conduct operations which were usually not agreeable to minimal access methods. Therefore the benefits over this minimal access method surgery might be applicable to broader range of procedures. Moreover safety is also ensured as a number of cases done using robotic surgery have shown positive outcomes. This telerobotic surgery is currently viewed as an excellent way to deliver surgical care to the patients who don’t have direct access to the surgeon.


The most popular and quickest anti aging treatment so far is the application of cosmetics and cosmetic surgery. The purpose of cosmetic surgery is to repair congenital defects and damage to the body. Due to accidents it has also gained great popularity repairing the results caused by aging. The popularity of this anti-aging treatment has resulted to very high standards of specialization. Medical practitioners in this field achieves a very high degree of requirement in training and must pass several tests and years of study before being eligible to be sponsored by a cosmetic surgeon who himself has had several years of formal cosmetic surgery practice. Only then could the recent practitioner be accepted into the American board of Cosmetic Surgeon.

Apart from reconstructive surgeries that are done usually on deformities, another result that cosmetic surgery achieves is the restoration of the youthful appearance of the body. Stretch marks, birthmarks, scars, skin toning and rejuvenation, are done through the use of either invasive or non invasive procedures. This modern mode of anti-aging treatments basically involves the following steps: The pre-operative interview where the best approach to the treatment are discussed, procedures are laid out, results and expectations are talked on and possibly some other issues whenever there are. Marking will also be done where the approach of the surgery will take place. The surgery or the treatment which usually takes a couple of hours depending on the complexity of the procedure that is opted. Many cosmetic surgery procedures though could be done quickly inside an hour. The recovery, again depending on the complexity and the age of the patient, recovery will vary from overnight to a couple of weeks and sometimes longer than that. Many procedures will enable the patient to get back to normal activities almost right after a moment of rest. The follow up treatment is only done when there are a series of procedures that are planned or when the completion of treatment requires intervals of schedules. The recent technological advances in this anti-aging treatment are such that many procedures that previously require invasive techniques are now replaced with treatments that will require no incisions. One greatest factor that this anti-aging treatment has become so popular is that Apart from being generally safe, cosmetic surgery requires very little effort, demands very little from the body and delivers very fast and desirable results that are often long lasting.

Examples of the most popular anti-aging procedures are:

Skin treatments – Skin treatments are usually non invasive procedures that use laser treatments to stretch out the skin and to remove wrinkles. Skins that are badly damaged due to accidents and aging are restored to its attractive and youthful look.

Face Lift – Achieves a younger modern looking face and reshapes it also to create a more balanced look.

Blepharoplasty – Is done to eliminate the puffiness and the sagging around the eyes to arrive a rested, fresh and younger looking face.

Dermabrasion is an anti-aging treatment that eliminates skin damage, blotches and wrinkles through laser surgery and the use of chemical peels. Microdermabrasion, on the other hand, is the anti-aging treatment that requires lighter chemical peels. These are non invasive procedures and require no recovery time. The list of anti-aging treatment trough cosmetic surgery is still growing due to specialization. No matter, these procedures remain to be one of the most reliable anti aging treatments that are commonly resorted today.

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